This Australian study interviewed individuals with lived experience of out-of-home care to understand their transition to independent living, focusing on stable housing. It highlights the reliance on specialist housing services and recommends extending care support to age 25 and improving transition planning. The findings are relevant to practitioners, informing their work with young people in out-of-home care and guiding efforts to address housing and support needs during the transition to independent living.
Analysis of the impact increasing the rate and extending eligibility of Parenting Payment Single on financial living standards
This report models the Summers Proposal, highlighting the potential benefits of improving social security payments for single mothers. Implementing the proposal could reduce the poverty gap and provide practitioners with valuable evidence to support vulnerable women and children in leaving violent relationships.
Anglicare Australia rental affordability snapshot: National report April 2023
Anglicare's annual rental affordability snapshot shows a drastic decrease in rental affordability in Australia, with only a few properties available to single parents on JobSeeker payments. This has significant implications for practitioners working with vulnerable individuals in need of affordable housing.
Annual alcohol poll 2017: Attitudes and behaviours
This report by The Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education summarises findings of the 2017 nation-wide survey that explored community attitudes towards alcohol. For the first time, Australians were asked in 2017 if they thought there was a link between alcohol and family violence. Ninety-two percent of Australians believe that there is a link between the two, and 80% indicate that they think governments should be doing more to address the role that alcohol plays in family violence.
ANROWS Research Summary: The impacts of domestic and family violence on children
This summary is designed for practitioners and policy-makers who want to know more about ANROWS research on the impacts of domestic and family violence (DFV) on children. It outlines the major issues found in ANROWS research relevant to children, the factors preventing effective service delivery and the policy and practice changes recommended by the researchers. It concludes with future research directions.
ANROWS special collection: violence against women in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
In acknowledgment of National Reconciliation Week, ANROWS has launched a special collection of resources that can be used as a starting point for people looking for information about issues and challenges faced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, and women in particular. It synthesises Australian and International literature and program evaluations to establish what is known about what works to prevent violence against Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in Australia.
ARPNet Dilly Bag: a practical field guide and research tools for use by Aboriginal research practitioners in Australia
This is a practical guide to participatory and other research tools for Aboriginal research practitioners. It was developed by a network of Aboriginal Research Practitioners in the Top End who want to use participatory tools that enable participants to better understand why and what is being done.
Assessing the different dimensions and degrees of risk of child sexual abuse in institutions
This Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse report explores the factors related to institutional child abuse. It identifies four dimensions of risk factors in an institutional setting; situational, vulnerability, propensity and institutional risks. It examines to what extent various risk factors might be more concentrated within some institutions or activities than others.
At the precipice: Australia’s community sector through the cost-of-living crisis
The Australian Council of Social Service's report on the Australian Community Sector Study 2022 highlights funding, contracting, and workforce challenges. The study reveals struggles in meeting needs, particularly in homelessness support, and shows decreased staff retention and insufficient government funding coverage for service delivery costs.
Attitudes matter: The 2021 National Community Attitudes towards Violence against Women Survey (NCAS), findings for Australia
ANROWS releases latest results from the NCAS survey on attitudes towards domestic violence in Australia. Progress seen since 2009, but concerning findings remain. 41% incorrectly believe equal rates of male and female perpetrators. Majority don't see issue in all communities, and only 47% recognise it in their own town. Valuable for practitioners to address misconceptions and promote awareness of domestic violence across all communities.
Audio recording – Coffee Talk – Introduction to the Evidence Based Decision Making Course Information Session
Audio recording - Coffee Talk - Introduction to the Evidence-based Decision Making for Human Service Leaders’ course. The session included reflections from co facilitators, Eric Barends, the Center for Evidence Based Management at Carnegie Mellon University and Dr Lisa . Griffiths, CEO, OzChild and three past course graduates.
Australia’s child support scheme: Third interim report
The Joint Select Committee on Australia’s Family Law System has released a third interim report for its inquiry into the family law and child support systems. It provides an overview of the child support system and outlines issues identified by inquiry participants. The report makes 19 recommendations.
This paper discusses trends related to access to formal childcare in Australia and the impact that attendance has on childhood development. It focuses on the impacts of childcare and preschool for disadvantaged groups in particular, noting the evidence that childcare may have greater positive impacts on child outcomes for disadvantaged groups. Nonetheless, children from disadvantaged backgrounds are much less likely to access formal childcare. The article provides recommendations to improve policy and reduce inequality of opportunity.
Australian country report – “Never waste a crisis”: Domestic and family violence policy and practice initiatives in response to COVID-19
Australia’s Research Organisation for Women’s Safety (ANROWS) and the University of Melbourne have released this Australian country report, one of four country reports as part of the DAHLIA-19 study, examining prevention strategies and responses to domestic and family violence during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and up until June 2021. The study found evidence that policy and funding strategies resulted in increased collaboration and communication, more multiagency working, leveraging of existing relationships and more efficient decision-making processes.
Australian Early Development Census national report 2021: Early childhood development in Australia
The Department of Education, Skills and Employment has released the latest report on the early childhood development of Australian children. The Australian Early Development Census 2021 found that the percentage of children who were on track on five domains decreased from 55.4 per cent in 2018 to 54.8 per cent in 2021 and the percentage of children developmentally vulnerable on one or more domain(s) increased from 21.7 per cent in 2018 to 22.0 per cent in 2021. The report discusses equity trends and the early impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Australian Early Development Census national report 2021: Early childhood development in Australia
The Department of Education, Skills and Employment has released the latest report on the early childhood development of Australian children. Using data from The Australian Early Development Census 2021 the report also discusses equity trends and the early impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Australian legal definitions: When is a child in need of protection?
This Child Family Community Australia (CFCA) resource sheet provides a legislative definition of ‘a child in need of protection’, with the aim of illuminating the point at which statutory services intervene to protect the child. It brings together the legislative definitions of ‘a child in need of protection’ across Australia’s states and territories, and highlights commonalities and variations across jurisdictions. While definitions vary slightly, the components that indicate ‘a child in need of protection’ are generally consistent.
Reconciliation Australia has released its biennial Australian Reconciliation Barometer. The report offers a snapshot of attitudes and perceptions towards reconciliation in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and the broader Australian community. Almost all Australians (97% Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and 89% Australians in the general community) believe their relationship is important. Though there have been significant strides towards reconciliation challenges persist. In the six months prior to the survey, 46% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders experienced at least one form of racial prejudice. The report makes recommendations to government, community and individuals to make reconciliation a reality, including investment in public anti-racism campaigns and constitutional recognition.
The Productivity Commission has released this report investigating Australia’s growing prison population. The report contains an economic cost-benefit assessment of increased use of imprisonment and explores available alternatives. The study found that increased imprisonment can be partially attributed to policy choices and more must be done to trial and evaluate prison alternatives. The study also examined the different ways in which imprisonment can affect children and families and identifies key research gaps.
The AIHW has released its latest biennial report on Australia’s welfare. The report includes chapters on the impact of COVID-19 on health and wellbeing, an overview of Australia’s welfare, current welfare services and supports, how Australia is faring compared to other countries, and the importance of welfare data. A key finding is that Australian and state and territory governments spent $195.7 billion on welfare related services in 2019–20. The AIHW website contains further data insights, welfare snapshots and interactive welfare indicators.
AVITH in Context: Building a framework to prevent and respond to young people with disability who use violence at home
Dr Georgina Sutherland and Dr Mediya Rangi provides an overview of this ANROWS-funded project, which aims to build a better understanding of individual, relationship, community context and sociocultural factors relevant for understanding young people with disability who use violence at home.
Avoiding simple solutions to complex problems: Independent Assessments are not the way to a fairer NDIS
Children and Young People with Disability Australia (CYDA) has released this report seeking to understand the experiences of children and young people with disability and their families accessing the NDIS and their thoughts on proposed reforms relating to Independent Assessments. CYDA conducted a survey with 12 per cent of the 270 responses being from children and young people. The study found that less than half (45 per cent) of respondents were satisfied with the services and support received under the NDIS and overall, 80 per cent of respondents had a negative view of the proposed reforms.
Barriers and facilitators to childhood obesity prevention among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Victoria, Australia
This study looks at the barriers and enablers to the engagement of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) community members in childhood obesity prevention programs in Victoria. Recommendations include system, and community level responses to address barriers such as low levels of health literacy, junk food advertising to children and cultural and language barriers to accessing health programs.
The eSafety Commissioner's report summaries big tech providers' responses to mandatory transparency notices regarding their efforts to address Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (CSEA). The report promotes transparency and aims to enhance online safety for children and young people. Providers such as Meta, WhatsApp, and Snap Inc. were included in the study.
Behind the Screen: Online child exploitation in Australia
Anti-slavery Australia has released a report bringing together national data and case studies to provide a snapshot of online child exploitation in Australia. The report shows that new technologies and ease of access to the internet have resulted in the proliferation of child exploitation materials available online. The study emphasises the need for common language and streamlined national and international frameworks and cooperation to combat this challenge.
Being Present: An exploratory study on the use of mindfulness in early childhood
This small US study looks at the types of mindfulness practices currently being used in an early childhood education setting to promote a sense of wellbeing in children. Many teachers reported that they use meditation and mindfulness when the children in their classroom were restless or stressed. The majority of teachers included in the study reported that using mindfulness practices resulted in positive behavioural and physical outcomes in their early childhood classrooms.
Beyond borders: How to make the global compacts on migration and refugees work for uprooted children
The rights, protection and wellbeing of migrant and refugee children should be central commitments of global migration policies, UNICEF has said in a new report. The report outlines best practice for children’s care and protection, and includes case studies of governments and communities working to support and integrate them and their families. Key themes include keeping families together, keeping refugee and migrant children learning, and combatting discrimination. The case studies are diverse, spanning across country income levels, and can be replicated in different contexts around the world.
Birth family contact: What are the views of children and young people in out-of-home care? – March 2021 – Evidence to Action Note
This Evidence to Action Note provides an overview of the views of children and young people about whether they have contact with family members and their satisfaction with contact arrangements, with findings drawn from two surveys, the 2018 NSW OOHC Survey and the NSW Residential Care Survey.
Good Shepherd Australia New Zealand (Good Shepherd) undertook this research to highlight some of the unique challenges faced by children and young people in their ‘middle years’ (between the ages of 8 – 12 years). The middle years are a critical time of development and change. Children can face difficulties transitioning from primary to high school, caring for parents or younger siblings, being subject to inappropriate sexualisation and sexual exploitation, and being denied the opportunity to have meaningful input into decisions that affect their lives. Good Shepherd makes recommendations to government, schools and the community sector to ensure that we are better able to meet the needs of children and young people in their middle years.
Bright futures: Spotlight on the wellbeing of young people from refugee and migrant backgrounds
This report from VicHealth discusses issues that affect the wellbeing of young people from refugee and migrant backgrounds. The report finds that migrant and refugee students are less likely to find full-time employment after graduation (45%) compared with Australian-born students (69%) due to racial discrimination, lack of understanding of the local job market and overseas skills and qualifications not being recognised. The research shows that refugee and young migrant communities also bring with them many unique qualities, such as global networks, new ideas and an entrepreneurial spirit, which can enrich Australian society.
Families experiencing homelessness come up against significant barriers in accessing quality early childhood education and care for their children. This US based research aims to give homeless parents a voice in illuminating their individual experiences, and to be part of the solution. Parents commonly identified issues related to access to financial subsidies, transportation and the absence of active outreach services.
Building the future: Children and the Sustainable Development Goals in rich countries
A report card released by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) offers an assessment of child wellbeing across 41 countries of the European Union (EU) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). On the League Table showing the performance of countries against nine child-relevant goals, Australia ranks 39 out of 41 countries for ‘quality education’, ahead of Romania (40) and Turkey (41).
Can early childhood interventions decrease inequality of economic opportunity?
This article published in the Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, investigates whether expanding access to early child education and care (ECEC) will reduce economic inequality later in life. The evidence suggests that multiple life domains, including academic achievement, behaviour, and mental health, can be improved if children are exposed to quality early childhood education.
Care criminalisation of children with disability in child protection systems
The Royal Commission's research report examines the pathways of children with disability in child protection into the criminal justice system. It covers risk and protective factors, policy effectiveness, barriers to evidence-based practice, and the experiences of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse and Aboriginal children. The report is relevant for practitioners working with children with disability and highlights areas for improvement.
Causes of death up to 10 years after admissions to hospitals for self-inflicted, drug-related or alcohol-related, or violent injury during adolescence: a retrospective, nationwide, cohort study
According to new research, teenagers injured through drinking, drug abuse or self-harm are five times more likely of dying from suicide in the next decade. The study examined hospital data relating to more than one million young people aged 10 to 19 who were admitted to an emergency department in the UK between 1997 and 2012 having suffered an injury. The authors suggest that adolescents admitted to hospital for drug, alcohol, or violence-related injury should be seen by a mental health professional to reduce the risk of suicide in later life.
Challenging racism project 2015-16 National Survey Report
This project measured the extent and variation of racist attitudes and experiences in Australia. It examines Australians’ attitudes to cultural diversity, intolerance of specific groups, perceptions of cultural privilege, and belief in racial hierarchy. The project also explored experiences of racism and the circumstances in which these events occur. Although just over 80% of respondents support a multicultural society, around 51% expressed anti-Middle Eastern sentiments and nearly 33% of participants had experienced racism in the work place.
The Australian Children’s Education & Care Quality Authority (ACECQA) has published an information sheet outlining agreed changes to the National Quality Framework (NQF) as part of the 2014 Review of the National Partnership Agreement on the National Quality Agenda for Early Childhood Education and Care. It includes a summary table of the proposals and final decisions by Ministers. Most changes commenced on 1 October 2017 in all states and territories.
This snapshot report from the Commission for Children and Young People (CCYP) investigates children’s and young people’s experiences during Victoria’s fifth and sixth lockdowns in the second half of 2021. Themes include struggles with poor mental health, concerns about the future and educational impacts.
Checking in with children and young people: Lockdown 4
This resource sheet presents a snapshot of data describing child protection activity in Australia. It looks at the figures from each state and territory, including the number of investigated and substantiated reports of harm, the most common types of substantiated reports, and characteristics of children who are the subjects of reports.
On 15 December 2017, the Final Report of the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse was delivered to the Governor-General of Australia and released. The Royal Commission’s Final Report comprises of 17 volumes and includes a total of 189 new recommendations, many of which are aimed at making institutions safer for children.
The Australian Institute of Family Studies has released its final evaluation report on the impact of the Australian Government’s Child Care Package. The evaluation found that the Child Care Subsidy reduced the net cost of child care for 62.2 per cent of families using child care, with low-income families amongst those who benefit most. It also found that beyond the subsidy, the package has had limited impact despite its intention to see improvements in areas such as access and employment outcomes.
This resource sheet provides an overview of the statistics on child deaths resulting from abuse and neglect, and information on the recording of child deaths in Australia. In 2015-16 in Victoria, the Department of Health and Human Services referred 38 cases of children (an increase of 59% from the previous year) who had died and were known to child protection up to 12 months before their death to the commission for inquiry. Common causes of death included non-accidental trauma and self-harm.
This report from ACIL Allen considered the extent to which the implementation of the Child Link Register will enable it to deliver the policy and legislative intent of Part 7A of the Child Wellbeing and Safety Act (2005). The review found that the program is well-positioned to achieve its objective and identified four strengths that are supporting its effective implementation.
Child Maltreatment and Adult Living Standards at 50 Years
Child maltreatment is a significant social welfare problem. This study examines the links between child maltreatment and adult socioeconomic outcomes, and uncovers the range of overlapping and compounding factors that influence outcomes in later life.
Child poverty and children entering care in England, 2015–20: A longitudinal ecological study at the local area level
This article, published by Lancet Public Health, reports the outcomes of a longitudinal study that used linked data to investigate the extent to which trends in child poverty relate to trends in out-of-home care entry in England. The study found many trends, which are detailed in the report.
Child poverty and mental health: A literature review
This literature review explores the relationship between child poverty in New Zealand and the impact that poverty can have on the mental health of a child or young person, or later as an adult. It provides an overview of the extent and nature of child mental health and poverty in New Zealand, and the links between the two. The literature review shows that mental health conditions among children and adolescents can be reduced by addressing severe and persistent poverty, particularly during the early years of a child’s life.
Child Protection and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children
This updated resource sheet provides a snapshot of the rates of involvement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in child protection and out-of-home care. In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children are almost seven times more likely than non-Indigenous children to be the subject of substantiated reports of harm or risk of harm. Further, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children are 9.8 times more likely than non-Indigenous children to be in out-of-home care. The experience of poverty, assimilation policies, intergenerational trauma and discrimination is discussed in relation to the overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Child protection system.